Biodiesel refers to biofuels produced from vegetable oils. or animal fat mixed with ethanol or methanol to get smaller fuel molecules which has similar properties to fossil diesel fuel and can be substituted.
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The idea of bringing vegetable oil to diesel engines has been around since 1895 (1895) by Dr. Rudolf Diesel, a German engineer. The inventor of the diesel engine experimented with soybean oil in his engine. It was found that the engine can run and work well. But soon there was a way to produce diesel from petroleum which was cheaper. As a result, oil from crude oil refining is used instead of vegetable oil. Until when the world has an energy crisis, vegetable oils are once again used in diesel engines.
Can I use vegetable oil directly in the engine?
100 percent vegetable oil can be used in diesel engines. But because vegetable oil has a very high viscosity Therefore, it is suitable for low-rpm engines such as engines for agriculture and fisheries. Therefore, in order not to cause problems with the engine. Therefore, properties must be adjusted to suit the engine first. And because diesel engines are designed to run on diesel fuel. Therefore, in order not to cause problems with the engine. The use of vegetable oil with diesel engines is used in a mixed manner. vegetable oil into diesel fuel
raw materials used in production
All vegetable and animal oils can be used as raw materials for biodiesel production. But choosing which type of oil to use in the production of biodiesel. must consider the price The quantity and composition in that type of vegetable oil, including the appropriateness of the amount of oil planting. In Thailand, there are 6 main oil crops cultivated: soybean, oil palm, coconut, peanut, sesame and castor, with oil palm having the highest yield followed by coconut. It is diesel fuel mixed with palm oil and used vegetable oil.
biodiesel from oily algae
The world is turning towards the 3rd era of renewable energy. from the first era Which the oil is used directly, stepping into the 2nd era that began to apply agricultural materials to produce oil, probably gasohol and biodiesel Which are used today, but now “algae oil” is becoming The world’s third generation of renewable energy is coming soon.
Most recently, PTT Public Company Limited, in collaboration with universities and research institutes in the country, such as the Thailand Institute of Science and Technology Research (TISTR), the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NIDA) TCDC) mainly develops freshwater microalgae species that exist in Thailand. The experiment started in 2007 and is currently in the process of selecting the strain that produces the most oil. And most importantly, it must be developed to a commercial level in the future. At present, seaweed is mainly used as a food supplement. But I believe that in the next 10 years, Thailand will see the production of algae. to bring oil for commercial use Or can be used instead of oil in cars Because the research found If algae and palm oil are compared to oil production, it will be found that algae produce 20-30 times more oil than palm.
“The world’s population is over 7 billion people and in the next 10 years it will increase to 9 billion people, so the world must prepare for future fuel consumption in advance. As for Thailand itself, it has to be prepared as well. By accelerating studies to find new energy to support, which algae may be the answer in the future.
It is expected that studies on the production of oil from algae in many countries in the world. It will be successful and will be brought into practice soon. For the part of Thailand itself. under research and began to be used in experiments with diesel engines Ran a distance of 1 hundred thousand kilometers already. Found that the condition of the car is still normal. However, it will need to be studied in detail for a while.
To bring algae oil to use in Thailand In the beginning, it has to be mixed with diesel in the proportion of 5-7% because algae oil still has a cost that is 3-4 times higher than palm oil and will need to be developed continuously in order to be commercially competitive. can continue
Advantages of biodiesel
1) Using biodiesel can reduce air pollution. due to complete combustion of the engine
2) Reduce imports of crude oil. from abroad
3) Add value to waste (Frying oil repeatedly) and reduce the risk of cancer.
4) Increase the value of agricultural crops such as oil palm, coconut
5) Enhance the stability of Thailand’s energy security in the future.
6) It is sustainable self-reliance.
Disadvantages of Biodiesel
1) Easier to convert to solid state than diesel fuel
2) Nitrogen oxides are released. more than diesel
3) The rubber parts of the oil pump deteriorate quickly.
4) Gives less heat than diesel.
5) Current cost of biodiesel More expensive than petroleum-based diesel when not including tax
1.1 Fermentation of biomass for transformation is alcohol
Starch, sugar and cellulose biomass can be converted into liquid by fermentation. In the fermentation process, degradation by microorganisms occurs. Turn starch into sugar and convert sugar into ethyl alcohol (ethanol), respectively. Selection of the type of microorganisms suitable for the raw materials to be fermented. It will increase the efficiency of fermentation. The resulting ethyl alcohol has a concentration of about 8 – 12 percent by volume.
Fermented water obtained from the fermentation process The ethanol will be separated by fractional distillation process. In this process, ethanol can be obtained. The purity is about 95 percent by volume if you want ethanol to be 99.5 percent pure in order to be mixed with water. Gasoline for use in general cars must go through another process, namely the process of absorbing water with a Molecular Sieve machine, in which there will be an adsorbent that will absorb water from the ethanol, making the processed ethanol This has a purity of 99.5 percent.